Blue Mold Warning for the following Kentucky Extension Areas: Bluegrass, Ft. Harrod, Licking River, and Northeast Kentucky. A warning means the disease is active and expected conditions should favor continued and increasing activity in the warning area.
Blue Mold Watch for the following Kentucky Extension Areas: Lincoln Trail, Mammoth Cave, Louisville,
Northern Kentucky, Quicksand, and Wilderness Trail, and Southern Ohio, and Southeastern Indiana.
A watch means that conditions are favorable for the disease to develop and a source of viable spores is
believed to be impacting the area under the watch.
Blue mold has become established over much of eastern and northern Kentucky, mainly at low levels, but some strong activity is also present. Foliar lesions and blighting range from small fleck-like spots to large lesions the size of a quarter or larger. Systemic infections of the leaf veins and stems have also occurred. The pathogen has been spread via airborne and transplant borne means, some spread over a month ago, and both means continue to operate currently. I suspect blue mold can be found in about all counties east of Interstate Highway 65, based on survey data and the few samples submitted to the lab.
The disease is now positioned such that a damaging epidemics of foliar blue mold could develop immediately in crops with closed or closing canopies. Rapid growth has made plants very susceptible to infections and to being seriously damaged when infections occur. The cool weather recently experienced should result in large lesions, heavy sporulation, and systemic development. Temperatures are expected to be higher over the next few days, but not high enough to check the disease in the eastern and northern regions of Kentucky.
In addition, activity should be expected immediately in southeastern Indiana, southern Ohio (especially Adams and Brown Counties), and western West Virginia.
Blue mold is present in fields, traditional plant beds, float beds, and greenhouses, and it is moving in locally-grown transplants. The most active and damaging cases are associated with sites of fast-growing tobacco in river/creek bottoms or sinks where cooler and wetter conditions occur at night. The strong association with shade from the west side of the fields/site observed last week is disappearing, probably because of the cooler temperatures and more closed canopy. A few very damaging cases of systemic blue mold have involved the recent setting of infected transplants. The affected crops are just setting there while healthy crops are growing rapidly.
In west central Kentucky, several cases involved very low levels of systemic blue mold in crops set in early to mid May. Based on the symptoms currently present, infections occurred before transplanting or soon afterwards. Since some of these fields of systemic blue mold involved tobacco now approaching the topping stage, infections probably occurred 45-60 days ago. Look for plants that are lighter in color to yellow, stunted, or breaking/ fall over (with the breaks near but usually above the soil line). The systemic infection cannot be seen until the lower stem is cut at a leaf position. Such plants may also have soreshin or other diseases moving into the stem and roots, and several other diseases can cause similar effects. The evidence of old infections supports the hypothesis that blue mold became established in west central Kentucky in early May, probably as we had advised in our reports of early May and later. The cooler temperatures and recent rains in south central Kentucky may support a significant increase in new blue mold activity, but resulting from new cycles of the disease developing from this old activity. These outbreaks probably also contributed inoculum to central and north-central Kentucky.
Status reports by Extension Area or state/region are as follows.
PURCHASE AREA of far western Kentucky: Aware of no reason or evidence to suspect blue mold.
PENNYRILE AREA of western Kentucky: Aware of no reason or evidence to suspect blue mold.
GREEN RIVER AREA of northwestern Kentucky: Aware of no reason or evidence to suspect blue mold.
MAMMOTH CAVE AREA of southwestern/south-central Kentucky: This area is under a Blue Mold Watch. Blue mold has been confirmed in the counties of: Allen, Barren, and Simpson. The disease has probably been active at very low levels in this area since early to mid May.
LAKE CUMBERLAND AREA of southern Kentucky: An advisory remains due to blue mold's presence southeast (eastern Tennessee) of this area and southwest (Mammoth Cave Area).
LINCOLN TRAIL AREA of central and west-central Kentucky: The eastern portion of this area is under a Blue Mold Watch. Blue mold has been confirmed in the counties of Larue and Nelson, and probably has been present since mid May at low levels. I plan to scout the western half of this area on July 4.
LOUISVILLE AREA: The disease has not been found in the area. However, a Blue Mold Watch was posted because the disease is present on the southern approaches and east of this area. Winds associated with low pressure systems last week, probably introduced viable spores into the area from areas southeast to the south and east.
NORTHERN KENTUCKY AREA: A Blue Mold Watch was posted last week and the disease was recently confirmed in the counties of Grant, and Pendleton. Lush tobacco in creek or river bottoms is much more likely to have blue mold than ridge-land sites.
FORT HARROD AREA of central Kentucky: It is under Blue Mold Warning with confirmed activity in the following counties: Franklin, Garrard, Jessamine, Lincoln, Mercer and Woodford. The disease is active at very low levels in most communities, with isolated cases of light to moderate activity in shady creek or river bottoms. Some very strong cases have been found in old plant beds. BLUEGRASS AREA of central Kentucky: This area is under a Blue Mold Warning with confirmed cases in all counties, including: Bourbon, Clark, Estill, Fayette, Harrison, Madison, Nicholas, Powell and Scott. The activity level is mostly low, but some cases of strong and damaging activity are occurring. The potential for damaging activity is high due to an abundance of vigorous tobacco situated in foggy pockets of sinks, creek, and river bottoms.
LICKING RIVER AREA of north central Kentucky: This area is under a Blue Mold Warning because prevailing winds should continue to send spores from the Bluegrass, Quicksand, and Wilderness Trail areas into this region, plus several sites of strong activity are present within. The disease has been confirmed in the following counties: Bath, Bracken, Fleming, Lewis, Mason, Menifee, Montgomery, Morgan, Robertson and Rowan. Disease potential is highly variable, but lush crops in low areas are highly vulnerable. Infected transplants are moving about this area and into others. This region's blue mold is also a threat to southern Ohio and western West Virginia.
NORTHEAST KENTUCKY AREA: This areas is under a Blue Mold Warning, because blue mold is present and prevailing winds will send blue mold spores directly into this area. Some areas have received significant and frequent rains. The disease has been confirmed in the counties of: Carter, Elliott, Greenup, and Magoffin, All reported activity is new, but it is increasing rapidly in cool, wet sites. The region could sustain serious damage quickly, because all other activity in the state and region are sending spores into this area, plus, cooler temperatures prevail favoring systemic blue mold, and the crop is young and highly susceptible to systemic infections.
QUICKSAND AREA of southeastern Kentucky: This area is under a Blue Mold Watch, but local agents may be putting individual counties under warnings. There is probably a lot more blue mold in the area than has been reported. The disease has been confirmed in most counties, including: Breathitt, Lee, Owsley, Perry and Wolfe. Growers in this region are unlikely to use preventive fungicides, so the region could generate significant spore load as at the disease builds. The host plant is not growing well is some crops with blue mold due to flooding of the root systems due to frequent and heavy rain.
WILDERNESS TRAIL AREA of southeastern Kentucky: It is under a blue mold watch with warnings. The disease has been confirmed in the following counties: Clay, Jackson, and Rockcastle. All cases have been found through survey, so the level of activity has not become sufficiently high to get the attention of growers and agents. This area is situated due north of strong activity in Tennessee and weather conditions have been favorable for infections. I suspect there may be a lot of blue mold in this region.
WESTERN WEST VIRGINIA: No activity has been reported from this region, but similar weather is occurring to that in eastern Kentucky, plus it is in the direct path to be receiving spores from the outbreaks in Kentucky. Consequently, I have issued a Blue Mold Watch.
SOUTHERN OHIO: This area has not reported blue mold but should be receiving spores from Kentucky. Thus, I have issued a Blue Mold Watch. SOUTHERN EASTERN INDIANA: Spores should have blown into this area last week from central Kentucky. Thus I have posted a Blue Mold watch.
Eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina, and western Virginia also have active blue mold in burley tobacco. New activity has been reported in Canada, Pennsylvania, and the Connecticut Valley.
During a Watch or Warning, controls should be put in place. The following controls are needed in the Watch/Warning areas.
Transplant Operations: DESTROY IMMEDIATELY ALL TRANSPLANTS NOT TO BE USED FOR TRANSPLANTING. Preventive fungicide sprays (Ferbam or Dithane) made at weekly intervals should be maintained in all transplant production systems to aid in the control of fungal diseases including blue mold. It is important to eliminate all transplants that are not needed. Overlapping of transplant production and field production is a key factor in blue mold development. Holding transplants is an excellent way to get things started, especially during seasons when the blue mold potential has been very low and the greatest threat comes from airborne inoculum arriving from flue-cured epidemics - just what we are seeing now.
Consider the following concerning transplants in the rest of Kentucky.
1. Keep all surplus plants sprayed weekly with fungicides - Ferbam or Dithane.
2. Any plants not sprayed within the past 7 days should be destroyed ? killed.
3. Move the surplus transplants to the communities where they are needed, so that the overlap and risk are in the community with the need for plants rather than those without the need. However, never move transplant from a watch/warning area to other tobacco producing areas of the state or nation.
Fields: Foliar fungicide sprays made at this time can greatly reduce the potential for blue mold building up in the field. While the level of activity is low and the leaves in the lower portions of the plant can be easily reached, fungicide applications with Acrobat MZ will eliminate blue mold. The systemic aspect of this fungicide makes it especially valuable in blue mold control early in the epidemic. Preventive field applications of fungicides are especially needed at this time for sites set with highly susceptible varieties in foggy sites, especially those in rotated land (due to superior growth potential) and creek or river bottoms. Use Acrobat MZ at 2.5 lbs /100 gallons of water, adjusting the concentration and volume of fungicide to the stage of growth, according to the label. Repeat the applications at weekly intervals.
The forecast will probably be updated a lot this week. For current status, check the KY Blue Mold Warning System.
July generally brings out the major leaf feeders in soybeans. By this time most problems with bean leaf beetle have passed, though the adults may again be pests as pod feeders later in the year, and it is a bit too early for a problem with green cloverworm. However, grasshoppers and Japanese beetles are out there. You can expect problems with them to be very scattered and therefore very hard to predict. This simply means keep your eyes on those fields. Fortunately, with all leaf feeders on soybean you should be able to detect any buildup in pest populations long before any control is required - so long as you keep an eye on your fields.
Both Japanese beetle and grasshoppers will be relatively easy to kill if the situation warrants control. However, both of these pests have a much greater "come back" power than most insect pests we face. This is because their populations are very large and very mobile. So just because you get control at one time in one location, does not mean that the pest will not reappear. This reappearance is not the result of poor control, but rather the movement into the field of beetles or grasshoppers from surrounding countryside.
Scouting information can be found on the IPM web site at: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/IPM/ipm.htm Just select "scouting info on line" or down load a PDF version of the soybean manual (IPM-3).
Pesticides for control can be found in ENT-13, Insecticide recommendations for Soybean-2000 you can find this on the web at: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/PAT/recs/rechome.htm
You can also get copies of these and other publications at your County Extension Office.
Sorghum midge is perhaps the most important insect pest of grain sorghum in Kentucky. It is certainly one of the most difficult to detect and measure. This pest is considered the most damaging insect in late planted grain sorghum. So, problems will increase as the season progresses. Remember this pest can only attack during BLOOM with the later the bloom period the more problematic. However, before or after bloom, it does not matter how many sorghum midges are present they can not hurt the crop.
This 1/8 inch long, black and orange fly is similar to the Hessian fly of wheat. The adult is quite small and fragile. Her eggs are quite tiny and rarely seen. The larva is a tiny pink-orange maggot and is also rarely seen, as it inhabits the inside of the grain kernel. The pupa is tiny, brown and seed shaped and is usually found in a cocoon in the seed head.
Adult sorghum midges lay eggs in the flowers of the sorghum plant. When eggs hatch the larva immediately move into the seed husk. Larval development is completed within the seed in about ten days. Pupation takes place within the seed husks or between seeds in the head. A new generation of adults hatches in approximately three days. There can be more than ten generations per year, each requiring about 15 days.
Sorghum is damaged when the maggot feeds on the developing seed. The result is "blasted" heads, or heads that did not fill. Because all the damage is internal it is often not noticed until much too late.
Begin scouting when the panicles emerge from the boot. Examine at least 20 heads/location when plants start to bloom, during the morning or early evening when the midge is most active. Count the number of midges per head by quickly enclosing each head in a plastic bag to trap any adults for counting.
Economic Thresholds- When 25-30% of heads have begun to bloom and midge numbers average 1 or more per head DURING BLOOM!!
Tips: Johnsongrass, late planting, sequential cropping and large numbers of rogues contribute to increasing sorghum midge numbers.
Pesticides for control can be found in ENT-24, Insecticide recommendations for Sorghum -2000 you can find this on the web at: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/PAT/recs/rechome.htm or at your County Extension Office.
You can down load a PDF version of the sorghum IPM manual (IPM-5) at: http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/IPM/ipm.htm
Stone Fruit Brown Rot. Stone fruits such as peaches, plums apricots, nectarines, and cherries are highly susceptible to brown rot. Brown rot disease results in a soft, brown decay of stone fruits. Warm, wet, humid summer weather conditions this month will favor infections by the brown rot fungus. As fruit softens during the ripening process, it becomes more susceptible to brown rot. Disease management will be improved by using sanitation to reduce sources of inoculum, avoiding fruit injury, and improving orchard drying conditions. Mummies and small fruit left over from earlier thinning operations and simply lying on the ground can be sources of inoculum. Insect damage to the fruits can open up wounds that allow entry by the brown rot fungus. Densely planted orchards or those partially shaded or surrounded by a woods could have problems with reduced air movement and slow drying, leading to greater brown rot outbreaks. Effective brown rot fungicides such as Elite (tebuconazole), Indar (fenbuconazole), or Orbit (propiconazole), often referred to as DMI fungicides, can be alternated with Benlate (benomyl) or Topsin- M (thiophanate-methyl) to manage DMI fungicide resistance. The DMI fungicides can be applied up to harvest whereas Benlate and Topsin-M have 3 and 1- day waiting periods. See ID-92, 2000 Kentucky Commercial Tree Fruit Spray Guide, for information on fungicides for managing brown rot.
Apple Fruit Rots and Blemishes. Symptoms of sooty blotch and flyspeck are already appearing in some orchards. Look for the dark sooty smudges and clusters of black specks which are signs of the fungi causing the disease. Rainy periods in latter June were conducive for infections of apple fruits. Other fruit diseases such as bitter rot, black rot, and white rot are not yet appearing, however, during moist periods throughout the summer fruits will be vulnerable to attack. The threat from sooty blotch and fly speck and other fungal infections of apple fruits can further be reduced through cultural practices that lower humidity and promote rapid drying. Dead limbs and branches that harbor some of these fungi should have been removed in winter. Remove reservoir hosts, particularly brambles, from the orchard and surrounding fence rows to help reduce the level of incoming spores. Continue to maintain fungicide applications on a regular schedule throughout the summer months. The mixtures of Captan or Ziram combined with Benlate or Topsin-M have worked well in the past. The new strobilurin fungicides Flint (trifloxystrobin) and Sovran (kresoxym-methyl) are expected to be effective in managing these and other summer diseases. Mancozeb is also effective but because of the 77 day preharvest interval it is probably too late to use it on most varieties. For suggestions of fungicide use, see ID-92.
Warm, humid weather has been favorable for activity of brown patch in tall fescue and creeping bentgrass. On tall fescue lawns, look for leaf lesions that are olive-green when fresh, and tan with a thin brown border when dry. Lesions are irregular in shape. Infected leaves often occur in discrete patches in the turf. On warm, dewy mornings, you may find sparse, gray to light brown mycelium of the fungus in the lower part of the canopy. Avoid nitrogen fertilization now, since that can enhance disease activity. When irrigating, do so in early morning rather than evening to avoid long periods of leaf wetness. Maintain a mowing height of 2-3 inches; higher heights favor leaf blighting, and lower heights can enhance turf loss from root rot.
For tall fescue seeded this spring and even last autumn, scout for disease activity, and treat with fungicides if necessary to prevent turf loss. Effective options on home lawns are limited because of label changes dictated by the Food Quality Protection Act. Commercial applicators have access to effective materials such as Heritage and Prostar, but the fungicides packaged for homeowners are not as effective against brown patch.
Certain highly managed Kentucky bluegrass swards are showing symptoms typical of summer patch roughly circular to somewhat irregular patches 6-18" of turf that quickly turns tan as it dries out, sometimes with a healthy tuft of grass in the center. Management practices include raising the mowing height to 3" and irrigating deeply (3"+ depth) but infrequently. When fertilizing, use ammonium-based fertilizers in all but very warm weather; however, fertilizing with nitrogen now will probably enhance the symptoms, so wait until after Labor Day to fertilize. Fungicides are too expensive and generally not effective enough for regular use in home lawns, and they will have little impact on the symptoms if applied now. Varieties of Kentucky bluegrass with moderate to high levels of resistance are available and tall fescue is not affected by the disease, so renovation is the best control option.
Several bermudagrass swards (varieties GN-1 and Quickstand) have been diagnosed with a foliar disease caused by a "Helminthosporium-type fungus" (laboratory identification is pending). It causes bleached to tan, irregular spots on leaf blades; the spots may have a thin brown border. The disease does not appear to affect crowns or stolons, so recovery from the disease following appropriate treatment appears rapid.
More information on brown patch is available in the Extension publications, ID-112, Brown Patch Disease in Kentucky Lawns, and PPA-1, Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases. More information on summer patch is available in the Extension publication ID-122, Patch Diseases in Kentucky Bluegrass Lawns . All are available through county Extension offices and the UK Turf Center web site http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/ukturf/.
Recent rainfall and warm temperatures have created ideal conditions for mosquitoes throughout Kentucky. Fortunately, there have been no reported cases of West Nile Virus, the mosquito-borne disease that killed 7 people and sickened dozens more last year in the Northeast. Health officials are monitoring for the virus in Kentucky, but are yet to find any infected birds (the primary wild host) or virus-carrying mosquitoes. Nonetheless, mosquitoes remain a perennial summer pest for which there is no easy control. There is an abundance of misinformation about what works and what doesn't.
WHERE DO THEY COME FROM?
Mosquitoes need quiet, non-flowing water for their development. In Kentucky there are two primary groups of mosquitoes, Culex and Aedes. Mosquitoes of the Culex group generally lay their eggs on the surface of water in rain barrels, bird baths, tin cans, old tires, cisterns, roof gutters and any other container that holds water. Mosquitoes of the Aedes group lay their eggs at the base of vegetation bordering streams or in low-lying areas subject to flooding. Aedes mosquitoes can also deposit their eggs above the water line in old tires and other water-holding containers. Their eggs can withstand long periods of dry weather between bouts of rainfall, which is why mosquitoes can be abundant, even in the midst of drought.
Mosquitoes develop rapidly, transforming into biting adults in as little as one week. A neglected bird bath or boat bottom allowed to accumulate water can produce hundreds of new mosquitoes each day.
WHAT CAN I DO ABOUT THEM?
Eliminate Breeding Sites - The best way to control mosquitoes is to find and eliminate their breeding sites. Eliminating areas of standing water, such as swamps or ditches, may require community-wide effort. Nonetheless, homeowners can take steps to prevent mosquitoes from breeding on their property.
1. Dispose of old tires, buckets, plastic sheeting or other containers that collect and hold water. Do not allow water to accumulate at the base of flower pots or in pet dishes for more than a few days. Clean debris from rain gutters and remove any standing water on patios or flat roofs.
2. Change water in bird baths and wading pools at least once a week. Consider stocking ornamental ponds with predacious minnows. Known as mosquito fish, these minnows are about 1 - 1 " inches in length and can be purchased or seined from streams and creeks. Another approach with ornamental ponds is to apply a "biorational" insecticide which prevents mosquitoes from developing in the water. Products containing methoprene (Altosid ) or Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis (Mosquito Dunks , Bactimos , Vectobac ) are essentially harmless to fish and other aquatic organisms, and are formulated as water-soluble granules, pellets, or briquets for ease of application.
3. Check around faucets and air conditioners and repair leaks that result in puddles for several days. Eliminate seepage from cisterns, cesspools, and septic tanks, and standing water around animal watering troughs
4. Fill or drain ditches and swampy areas. Remove, drain or fill tree holes and stumps with sealant so as not to accumulate water.
5. Irrigate lawns and gardens carefully to prevent water from standing for several days.
Controlling Adults - Some mosquitoes fly long distances. It may be necessary to supplement elimination of breeding sites with control tactics directed against incoming adults.
Exclusion - Mosquitoes can be kept out of homes by securely screening windows, doors and porches. The occasional mosquito found indoors can be eliminated with a fly swatter or aerosol-type insecticide labeled for mosquitoes, gnats, and other flying insects.
Topically-Applied Repellents - Repellents will help prevent bites when spending time outdoors. The most effective mosquito repellents contain the active ingredient diethyl toluamide (DEET). In general, the higher the percentage of DEET in the ingredients, the longer the protection. Low -percentage formulations are available for use with young children. Non-DEET containing repellents (e.g. Avon Skin-So-Soft , citronella) may provide some relief, but to a lesser degree and for shorter duration than DEET-containing products. It is often desirable to apply insect repellent on outer clothing as well as the skin. Always read and follow directions on the container. Mosquito repellent should not be applied to the hands of young children, and treated skin should be washed with soap and water after returning indoors.
Vegetation Management - Adult mosquitoes prefer to rest in dense vegetation during the day. Consequently, homeowners should remove tall weeds and grass in their yard. To further reduce intolerable populations of adult mosquitoes around structures, insecticides can be applied to the lower limbs of shade trees, shrubs, and shaded areas adjacent to foundations. Lawn and garden formulations containing carbaryl, malathion or synthetic pyrethroids (e.g., permethrin, cyfluthrin = Bayer Advanced Lawn & Garden Multi-Insect Killer) are effective but of short duration.
Bug Zappers, Citronella Candles, Ultrasonics, etc. - Many consumer products claim to attract, repel or kill outdoor infestations of mosquitoes. Most of these devices do not work, or are only marginally effective. "Bug zappers" using ultraviolet light as an attractant are generally ineffective in reducing outdoor mosquito populations and their biting activity. Studies indicate that less that five percent of the mosquitoes killed by bug zappers are females the only ones that actually bite. The rest are non-biting, male mosquitoes and other harmless night flying insects.
Somewhat better results have been obtained with citronella candles. For maximum protection, use multiple candles positioned close, i.e., within a few feet of where people are sitting. A single candle stationed at the outer edge of a large picnic blanket probably won't provide much benefit, other than "atmosphere."
Ultrasonic devices, mosquito-repellent plants, eating garlic, and other "panaceas," routinely touted in magazine advertisements are generally ineffective. When it comes to mosquito control, if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.
Recent samples in the Diagnostic Lab have included gray leaf spot and Pythium root rot on corn; Pythium root rot and Rhizoctonia root and stem rot on soybean; angular leaf spot, black shank, blue mold, soreshin, Fusarium wilt, Fusarium stem rot, black root rot, tomato spotted wilt virus, tobacco streak virus, and nutritional/chemical problems on tobacco.
On vegetables, we have seen Fusarium root and stem rot on bean; bacterial wilt on cucumber, squash and cantaloupe; gummy stem blight on cantaloupe; watermelon mosaic II on squash; early blight on eggplant; bacterial canker, bacterial speck, Septoria leaf spot, early blight, root knot nematode, southern stem blight, buckeye rot, tomato spotted wilt virus and aster yellows on tomato; and bacterial spot and Rhizoctonia stem rot on pepper.
On ornamentals, we have seen southern stem blight on hosta; Heterosporium leaf spot on iris; bacterial spot on English ivy; Fusarium stem rot on delphinium; Rhizoctonia stem rot on snapdragon and vinca; summer patch on bluegrass; brown patch on fescue; slime molds growing over turf and mulch in landscapes; and cedar-quince rust on hawthorn.
|UKREC-Princeton, KY, Jun 23 - 30, 2000|
|European Corn Borer||18|
|Southwestern Corn Borer||4|
The UK Turf Field Day is set for Thursday, July 13, at the UK Turf Center. The Turf Center is located on the UK Research Farm off Ironworks Pike, a mile or two east of the Kentucky Horse Park. Tours begin at 9:00 am and will end around noon. A great variety of research trials and demonstrations can be seen at the field day, and it is an excellent chance to discuss the latest in turfgrass science in an informal setting. Come one, come all, and be welcome!
Dates and locations have been set for this fall's commercial pesticide applicator training sessions for Categories 1: Agricultural Plant, 2a: Forest Pest Control, 3: Ornamental & Turf, 4: Seed Treatment, 10: Demonstration & Research, and 12: Pesticide Dealer. Agendas will be developed later. September 20 (Wednesday), 2000: Fayette County Cooperative Extension Office, Lexington October 12 (Thursday), 2000: University of Kentucky Research & Education Center, Princeton
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