JOHN J. COX
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Wildlife and Conservation Biology
214 T.P. Cooper Building (office 208)
Lexington, KY 40546-0073
Tel: 859-257-9507 (office)
B.S. Biology, Morehead State University, 1995
M.S. Biology, Morehead State University, 1997
Ph.D. Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky, 2003
Wildlife Ecology and Management
Human Dimensions in Wildlife and Conservation
Photography, Sustainable Farming-Living, History, Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Native Plant Ecology and Landscaping, Consumptive Hunting
FOR 230: Conservation Biology (3 Credit hours)
Emphasis is placed on factors that have led to loss of biodiversity and responsive conservation strategies at single-species, ecosystem, and landscape scales. Because conservation biology is multidisciplinary in scope, we review and discuss conservation-related topics that span a gamut of subdisciplines, including wildlife management, restoration ecology, economics, evolution, phylogeny, taxonomy, genetics, behavioral ecology, population ecology, disease, sociology, sustainable living, and human dimensions.
FOR 599: Environmentalism: Survey of a sociopolitical movement (3 Credit hours) Summary: A graduate course that presents upper undergraduates and graduate students with a multi-disciplinary overview of the environmental movement in America. It examines the socio-political, cultural, philosophical, and scientific developments that created and continue to influence the modern environmental movement using an historical framework to organize discussion of key literary, scientific, and political figures, legislative and environmental events, and philosophical approaches that shape human perspective and relations with the environment.
FOR 599: The Chihuahuan Desert: Ecology, Conservation Policy and Practice (3 credit hours) Summary: This is travel-based spring field course designed to expose students to one of the most biologically diverse areas on Earth, the Chihuahuan desert ecosystem (CDE). Our main learning objective is to develop an understanding of the major past, present, and future factors that have, are, and will likely shape the landform, biodiversity, and human inhabitants of the CDE. We focus on the ecology of this unique ecosystem through readings about and experiences in three focal areas of the southwestern U.S.; Big Bend National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. In addition, through readings, discussion, and interactions with people that protect and/or study this system we will investigate some of the current major management and conservation issues for each focal protected area (parks) and the ecosystem as a whole.
FOR 599: Florida’s Ecosystems: Ecology, Conservation Policy and Practice (3 credit hours). Summary: This is travel-based spring break field course designed to expose students to the wonderfully biodiverse ecosystems of Florida. Our main learning objective is to develop an understanding of the major past, present, and future factors that have, are, and will likely shape the landform, biodiversity, and human inhabitants in this rapidly growing state. We focus on the ecology of this unique ecosystem through readings about and experiences in a number of protected areas that span the length and width of the peninsula. In addition, through readings, discussion, and interactions with people that protect and/or study this system we will investigate some of the current major management and conservation issues for each focal protected area (parks) and the various ecosystems as a whole and collectively.
FOR 770: The wild canids: ecology, management, and conservation (1 Credit hour)
Summary: A 1-hour credit course is designed to provide graduate students with an overview and synthesis of scientific literature pertaining to the wild canids found throughout the world. The course will cover the evolution, behavioral ecology, management, and conservation of wolves, dogs, jackals and foxes.
FOR 770: The wild felids: ecology, management, and conservation (1 Credit hour)
Summary: A 1-hour credit course is designed to provide graduate students with an overview and synthesis of scientific literature pertaining to the wild felids found throughout the world. The course will cover the evolution, behavioral ecology, management, and conservation of various species of the cat family.
FOR 770: Ecology and Management of Wild Ungulates in North America (1 Credit hour) Summary: A 1-hour credit course is designed to provide graduate students with an overview and synthesis of scientific literature pertaining to the wild ungulates in North America. The course will cover the evolution, behavioral ecology, management, and conservation of ungulates, with particular emphasis on game species.
Society for Conservation Biology
The Wildlife Society, National, Southeastern Region, and Kentucky Chapters
Kentucky Ornithological Society
Kentucky Society of Natural History
Kentucky Native Plant Society
CURRENT MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECTS (Wildlife)
Ecology and Management of Black Bear in Eastern Kentucky - Kentucky was referred to by some early European settlers as the “bear state” due to the prolific numbers of bears harvested and shipped to fur and hide markets (e.g. British soldier hats). Black bear may have been the last large mammal to be extirpated from Kentucky in the 19th century. Bears in adjacent eastern states didn’t fair much better, although pockets did survive in the most rugged, mountainous areas and would later recolonize most forested portions of those states during the 20th century. Black bears, primarily wandering males, begin to trickle into eastern Kentucky in the latter half of the 20th century. Led by the late Dr. David Maehr, the initial 5 years of KY bear research focused on resource selection and demography. Current research focuses on bear population dynamics and general ecology conducted by M.S. forestry graduate student Sean Murphy, with field and lab assistance from M.S. statistics student Ben Augustine, and Ph.D. animal and food sciences student John Hast, in conjunction with Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.
Ecology and Conservation of Black Bears in Southcentral Florida– This project examines the natural history and population status of one of the smallest and most isolated bear populations in North America. Here the black bear inhabits a fragmented landscape that is dominated by agriculture and is increasingly threatened by highways and associated human activities. The population is strategically located as a stepping stone between the larger Big Cypress Swamp population and potential habitat to the north. Highlands County and Glades County bears exist primarily on private lands where land owners have maintained suitable tracts of forested habitat. The black bear in this region is a logical conservation umbrella because its movements integrate the remaining fragments of the Lake Wales Ridge and its associated biodiversity. This is an area of high endemism and conservation attention. Not only does the black bear range widely here, it also interacts with a variety of species and habitats that are, themselves, imperiled. Successful conservation of the black bear carries with it benefits to many other important natural resources. We continue the pioneering research of the late Dr. David Maehr. Our current research focuses on the ecology of the bear, with particular focus on identifying and characterizing key landscape corridors that stitch together the fragile network of public and private lands, particularly road crossings. In addition, we are currently conducting a 3-year hair snare study to estimate population size of these bears in Highlands and Glades Counties. Field efforts are currently led by research scientist and UK M.S. graduate Wade Ulrey in conjunction with Archbold Research Station, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund, and a number of generous private land owners and ranchers. M.S. forestry student Joe Guthrie is wrapping up his bear road crossing study in Fall 2011.
Ecology and Management of Reintroduced Elk in Kentucky - As with other large mammals (bison, wolf, cougar, black bear), elk were probably extirpated in Kentucky before the Civil War. However, elk are a charismatic and popular game species valued by hunters and non-hunters alike. As such, they were reintroduced to several states during the 20th century. Over a decade since initial reintroduction efforts began in 1997, elk in southeastern Kentucky have grown to number an estimated 6,000-9,000, and are thus considered by far the largest herd east of the Mississippi River. Elk have returned some key ecological processes characteristic of large herbivores to this area, but their size and tendency to form large herds can cause local conflict with people. Led by the late Dr. David Maehr, the initial decade of elk research focused on the natural and anthropogenic factors that influenced reestablishment, demographic issues, habitat use, movement patterns, food habits, and impacts on other species and soils. Current research focuses on bull elk population ecology, health (parasitological and disease aspects) and resource and movement patterns. Graduate students working on this project include Ph.D. animal and food sciences student John Hast and M.S. forestry students Alejandra Betancourt and Aaron Hildreth in conjunction with Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.
Mesocarnivore Monitoring in Kentucky - The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), coyote (Canis latrans), and bobcat (Felis rufus) are important furbearer predators, omnivores, and disease reservoirs that have the potential to interact with both wild and domesticated carnivores in Kentucky. The coyote immigrated to Kentucky in large numbers during the late 1970s and has become an important furbearer and ecological player throughout the Commonwealth. The coyote is the largest wild canid in Kentucky. This smaller cousin to the gray wolf (Canis lupus) preys on a variety of items, including adult white-tailed deer, elk calves, but primarily on smaller prey such as rabbits, rodents, and insects, but also many wild plant fruits. Coyotes can also impact both bobcat and gray fox via exploitative competition and interference competition, including direct killing. As such, regional declines in small game, deer, and mesocarnivores are often attributed to the recent increase in coyote numbers. The coyote is also an important disease reservoir for both wild and domestic animals.
The bobcat is a secretive, solitary medium-sized carnivore that is an ecologically important predator of small mammals, ungulate neonates, birds, and occasionally adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
The bobcat is our only remaining native cat (the cougar is extinct) and important economically and culturally to Kentucky as a furbearer. These cats are legally hunted and trapped in Kentucky with around 1800 per year harvested in the past five years. Although the number of harvested cats has remained relatively steady in recent years, it is uncertain, as with other states, whether this is due to a stable population or additional hunting pressure. The lack of confidence in population trends has resulted in the bobcat remaining on the CITES watch list.
The gray fox is an opportunistic omnivore that has a strong association with deciduous forest, but also has been shown to occur in agricultural, transitional, and suburban areas. It plays an important economic and cultural role in Kentucky as a furbearer, and is important ecologically as a predator of small mammals, birds, and seeds. The gray fox is also an important disease reservoir that has the potential to interact with both wild and domesticated carnivores. Although little is known about the distribution and abundance of this native Kentucky canid species, state wildlife agency personnel and fur trappers have suggested the species is in statewide decline, perhaps due to colonization by and competition from its larger cousin, the coyote. Thus, the status of the gray fox in Kentucky is largely uncertain, with some indication of decline based on trapping data and other anecdotal observations. The technical status, S4 apparently secure, underscores the need for more information on the distribution, abundance and population trends of the species.
This research project uses non-invasive genetic survey methods (e.g. hair snares and scat dog surveys) to document the spatial relationship, density, and genetic diversity of three sympatric carnivores (bobcat, coyote, and gray fox) at different locations in Kentucky. Data collected will be used to further our understanding about the abundance of these 3 mesocarnivores and to ultimately begin to inform predictive population models that influence harvest levels of these species. M.S. forestry graduate student Bryan Tom leads the field and lab efforts on this project in conjunction with Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources and the USDA.
The Common Raven in Cliff Habitat: Detectability and Occupancy - The common raven (Corvus corax) is a cliff-nesting bird species of conservation interest in Kentucky. Suitable breeding habitat appears to be extensive in Kentucky but the status of this species in cliff habitat is largely unknown. We propose to characterize the detectability and autecology of the common raven in cliff habitat and to develop protocols for monitoring the occupancy of key habitat in eastern portions of the Commonwealth. Study objectives are to: (1) quantify factors affecting the detectability of the raven in cliff habitat, (2) quantify landscape attributes of known breeding locations at multiple scales, (3) develop and initiate protocols for monitoring the occupancy of key potential breeding habitats in Kentucky. Detectability will be estimated by conducting surveys at sites known to be occupied by ravens in the Southern Appalachians. These sites will provide the basis for a site-attribute habitat model that will quantify breeding habitat in the region. We expect to generate new information for detecting breeding ravens at Kentucky’s cliffs and on habitat features that might be important in their occupancy of potential breeding sites. Finally, we expect to develop a consensus on where the most likely breeding locations for these species are in the Commonwealth, and to initiate a plan for their long-term periodic monitoring. Finally, we will opportunistically gather similar data on ravens observed to nest in non-cliff habitat in the state. This research is the focus of M.S. forestry graduate student Joshua Felch in conjunction with Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.
Impact of Timber Harvest on Herpetofauna and Breeding Birds in a Mixed-mesophytic Forest - Kentucky’s forests are highly biodiverse, but also are critically important to the stability and productivity of aquatic ecosystems. Timber harvest can negatively impact streams by increasing stream temperatures through loss of shading, and by erosion which in turn results in increased sediment and nutrient loads in streams. Timber harvest also impacts terrestrial forest communities by causing direct or indirect mortality of organisms via habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Many forest-dwelling amphibians and birds have been shown to be negatively impacted by timber harvest. In this study, the focus is to assess changes in mixed-mesophytic forest salamander communities, particularly in or near ephemeral streams, after timber harvest. M.S. forestry graduate student Tom Maigret leads the salamander field studies. Other PIs on this project include Dr. Chris Barton (UK Forestry) and Dr. Jeffery Larkin (Indiana University of Pennsylvania).
Brucellosis and Bison in Yellowstone National Park - Brucellosis is a bacterial disease of livestock and occasionally humans caused by various species of Brucella bacteria. In cattle, Brucella abortus infection can cause abortion in cows and other reproductive complications, and can be transmitted from aborted remains to other individuals, and thus it is considered a serious economic threat to the livestock industry. The disease is thought to have been brought from Europe to North America via imported livestock in the 18th or 19th century where it subsequently infected several wildlife species including bison and elk. The disease has largely been eliminated in most of the U.S., but a major reservoir for the disease still exists with ungulates in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and surrounding areas. Although there has never been a confirmed case of bison transmitting brucellosis to domestic livestock, the potential threat of such an outbreak has caused the National Park Service and state wildlife agencies to adopt a number of measures to try and prevent bison from leaving the park. These measures have included inoculation of bison against B. abortus using biobullets, and in conjunction with state wildlife agencies, highly controversial hazing and culling of individual animals to keep them inside park boundaries. In this study, led by NPS biologist and UK Ph.D. biology student John Treanor, the focus is to gain a better of understanding of brucellosis dynamics within the YNP bison population, efficacy of vaccination strategies, and the impact of culling on overall herd immunity. Dr. Phillip Crowley (UK Biology) and several others with the Park Service serve as principal investigators on various aspects of this project.
CURRENT MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECTS (Forestry-Plants)
Impacts of Fire and Herbivory on select hardwood trees in the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky – The Inner Bluegrass physiographic region is an ecologically anomalous region in central Kentucky characterized by calcareous, alkaline soils and an underlying karst geology. Although precipitation is fairly abundant in this area, soils rapidly drain after rain events, making the area more drought-prone than surrounding areas. Forest composition differs from surrounding areas in that many species, such as the blue ash (Fraxinus quadralangulata) and chinquapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergheii), are more prevalent and canopy-dominant as a result of being better adapted to drought conditions and calcareous soils than other eastern forest species. Evidence suggests the pre-European settlement plant community was a mosaic of savanna-woodland, grassland, and canebrakes. What disturbance regime maintained this mosaic is a mystery, and no undisturbed remnants of this system exist to provide an adequate reference. A few, small savanna-woodland remnants that contain relatively long-lived and mostly fire-intolerant ash, hickory, and oak species, suggest that at least from ~1550-1775, the ecological release of large ungulates (bison, elk, white-tailed deer) caused by the widespread population declines of Native Americans, may have through herbivory and physical actions (e.g. trampling), been responsible for maintaining the savanna-woodland-canebrake landscape mosaic encountered by the first Europeans. In this long-term study, recently established in one of the best preserved savanna-woodland remnants, Griffith Woods, we seek to understand the effects of herbivory, competition, and fire on 14 of the most common Bluegrass hardwood trees. We have planted approximately 6000 seedlings and constructed 18 white-tailed deer exclosures to begin addressing these and related ecological questions. Biology M.S. student Jim Schaffer leads the current field efforts of this study in conjunction with Co-PIs, Dr. Scott Gleeson (UK Biology) and Dr. John Lhotka (UK Forestry). Dr. Phillip Crowley (UK Biology) is a co-PI on the white-tailed deer herbivory component of this study.
Graduate Students and Committees
Since 2006, I have served on 30 graduate student committees, acting as Advisor or Co-advisor on 20 of those;12 of these are active students, 11 of which are at UK.
~$1.2 million dollars in extramural funding since 2001
Refereed Journal Articles
Tedder, S., J.J. Cox, P.H. Crowley, and D.S. Maehr. 2012. Black bears, palms, and giant palm weevils: an intraguild mutualism. The Open Ecology Journal. In press.
Chamber, D.L., W.A. Ulrey, J.M. Guthrie, O.C.H. Kwok, J.J. Cox, D.S. Maehr, and J.P. Dupey. 2011. Seroprevalence of Toxoplamosis gondii in free-ranging black bears in Florida. Journal of Parasitology. In press.
Crowley, P.H., and J.J. Cox. 2011. Intraguild mutualism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:627-633.
Treanor, J., C. Germenia, P.H. Crowley, J.J. Cox, P.J.White, R. Wallen, and D. Blanton. 2011. Estimating probabilities of active brucellosis infection in Yellowstone bison through quantitative serology and tissue culture. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:1324-1332.
Augustine, B., P.H. Crowley, and J.J. Cox. 2011. A mechanistic model of GPS collar fix acquisition. Ecological Modeling. 222:3615-3625.
Fei, S., J.J. Cox, and A.Whittle. 2011. A perfect storm threatens recovery of the Florida panther. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 9(6):317-318.
Cox, J.J. 2010. Tales of a repatriated megaherbivore: challenges and opportunities for management of reintroduced elk in Appalachia. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference:632-642.General Technical Report P-78. U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
Treanor, J., J. Johnson, R. Wallen, S. Cilles, P. Crowley, J.J. Cox, D.S. Maehr, P.J. White, and G. Plumb. 2010. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison. Vaccine 28F:F64-72.
Olsson, M., J.J. Cox, J.L. Larkin, P. Widen, and A. Olofsson. 2010. Space and habitat use of non-migrating moose in coastal southwestern Sweden. European Journal of Wildlife Research. DOI 10.1007/s10344-010-0418-5
Larkin, J.L., D.S. Maehr, J. J. Krupa, J.J. Cox, K.A. Alexy, D. Unger, and C. Barton. 2008. Response of small mammals to 3 post-coal mining reclamation treatments. Southeastern Naturalist 7:401-412.
Cox, J.J., and P.S. Crowley. 2007. The Bluegrass restoration program at Griffith Woods. (Invited) Restoration Ecology 25:72-73.
Cox, J.J., J.L. Larkin, and D.S. Maehr. 2006. Florida panther habitat use: new approach to an old problem. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1778-1785.
Maehr, D.S., P.S. Crowley, J.J. Cox, M.J. Lacki, J.L. Larkin, T.S. Hoctor, L.D. Harris,
and P.M. Hall. 2006. Of Florida panthers and haruspices: genetic intervention in the
Florida panther. Animal Conservation 9:127-132.
Dzialak, M.R., M.J. Lacki, K.M. Carter, K. Huie, and J.J. Cox. 2006. A critical
assessment of hacking as a raptor reintroduction technique. Wildlife Society Bulletin
Schneider, J., D.S. Maehr, K.A. Alexy, J.J. Cox, J.L. Larkin, and B.C. Reeder. 2006.
Food habits of reintroduced elk in southeastern Kentucky. Southeastern Naturalist 5:535-546.
Seward, N.W., D.S. Maehr, J. Gassett, J.J. Cox, and J.L. Larkin. 2005. Field searches
versus vaginal-implant transmitters for locating elk calves. Wildlife Society Bulletin
Wichrowski, M.W., D.S. Maehr, J.L. Larkin, J.J. Cox, and M. Olsson. 2005. Activity and movements of reintroduced elk in southeastern Kentucky. Southeastern Naturalist 4:365-374.
Cox, J.J., and D.S. Maehr. 2005. Surface mining and wildlife resources: addition and
subtraction on the Cumberland Plateau. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 69:234-250.
Larkin, J.L., J.J. Cox, M. W. Wichrowski, M.R. Dzialak, and D.S. Maehr. 2004.
Release site fidelity of reintroduced elk in Kentucky. Restoration Ecology 12:97-105.
Maehr, D.S., J.L. Larkin, and J.J. Cox. 2004. Shopping centers as panther habitat:
inferring animal locations from models. Ecology and Society 9(2): 9. [online] URL:
Larkin, J.L., D.S. Maehr, J.J. Cox, D.C. Bolin, and M.W. Wichrowski. 2003.
Demographic characteristics of a reintroduced elk population. Journal of Wildlife
Cox, J.J., N.W. Seward, J.L. Larkin, and D.S. Maehr. 2003. Common raven nests in
eastern Kentucky. Southeastern Naturalist 2:99-104.
Larkin, J.L., K. J. Alexy, D. Bolin, D.S. Maehr, J.J. Cox, M.W. Wichrowski, and N.W.
Seward. 2003. Incidence of meningeal worm in a reintroduced elk herd in Kentucky.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:588-592.
Maehr, D.S., J.L. Larkin, K.J. Alexy, R.J. Warren, N.W. Seward, J.W. Day, T. Toman,
J.J. Cox, and M.A. Orlando. 2002. Graduate education should not count more toward
TWS certification. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:979-982.
Larkin, J.L., D.S. Maehr, J.J. Cox, and C. Logsdon. 2002. Reproductive performance of yearling male elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in a reintroduced population in southeastern Kentucky. Southeastern Naturalist 1:279-286.
Cox, J.J., D.S. Maehr, and J.L. Larkin. 2002. The biogeography of faunal place names in the United States. Conservation Biology 16:1143-1150.
Larkin, J.L., D.S. Maehr, J.J. Cox, M. W. Wichrowski, and R.D. Crank. 2002. Factors
affecting reproduction and population growth in a restored elk population. Wildlife
Cox, J.J., L. Meade, D. Yancy, and D.S. Maehr. 2001. Taxonomic status of wild Canis in Kentucky. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Fish and Wildlife Agencies 55:408-417.
Tedder, S., J.J. Cox, P.H. Crowley, and D.S. Maehr. Black bears, palms, and giant palm weevils: an intraguild mutualism. Journal of Animal Ecology
Unger, D.E., D.S. Maehr, H.Harris, J.L. Larkin, B. Augustine, S. Dobey, J. Hast, R. Jensen, S. Murphy, J. Plaxico, and J.J. Cox. A brief history and current status of the black bear in Kentucky. Southeastern Naturalist.
Non-refereed Journal Articles:
Cox, J.J. 2007. Black vulture fledges young in historic Griffith Tavern. Kentucky Warbler 83:36-37.
Seward, N.W., J.J. Cox, J.H. Brown, and J.L. Larkin. 2005. Use of elk hair as nesting
material by the eastern phoebe. Kentucky Warbler 81:33.
Cox, J.J., and J.L. Larkin. 2004. Monitoring the state-endangered common raven (Corvus corax) in southeastern Kentucky. (Invited) Endangered Species Bulletin 21:109-112.
Cox, J.J., R.D. Crank, and D.S. Maehr. 2000. Bald eagle scavenges a white-tailed
deer carcass at Redbird Wildlife Management Area. Kentucky Warbler 76:51-52.
Maehr, D.S., J.J. Cox, and J.L. Larkin. 2006. North American Elk, or Wapiti, Cervus
Elaphus. Pages 293-314. In, M. Trani, W.M. Ford, and B.R. Chapman (eds.). The land
manager’s guide to mammals of the South. USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, GA and The Nature Conservancy, Durham, NC. 546 pp.
Maehr, D.S., M.A. Orlando, and J.J. Cox. 2005. Large carnivores, herbivores, and
omnivores in South Florida: An evolutionary approach to conserving landscapes and biodiversity. Pages 293-314. In, J. Ray, J. Berger, and K. Redford (eds.), Large carnivores and biodiversity: does saving one conserve the other? Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Maehr, D.S., J.J. Cox, and J.L. Larkin. 2002. Landscape history: linking conservation
approaches for large mammals. Pages 321-340. In, J.A. Bissonette and I. Storch (Eds.). Landscape ecology and resource management: linking theory with practice. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Larkin, J.L., D.S. Maehr, L. Cornicelli, J.J. Cox, and R. Grimes. 2001. Returning elk to
Appalachia: foiling Murphy’s Law. Pages 101-117, In, D.S. Maehr, R. Noss, and J.L.
Larkin (editors). Large mammal restoration: ecological and sociological challenges in the 21st century. Island Press, Washington D.C.
Davis III, S.E., K. Hines, W. Conner, J.J. Cox, D. Gawlik, J. Jackson, J. Jones, F.M.
Wilhelm, and J. Richards. 2010. Oil and gas impacts in the Big Cypress Ecosystem:
an analysis of impacts associated with proposed activities in the Nobles Grade area. 269 pp.
Larkin, J.L., J. Treanor, J.J. Cox, D.S. Maehr, and G. Plumb. 2003. A comprehensive rapid-assessment approach for research agenda: elk (Cervus elaphus) at Yellowstone National Park. Technical Report, Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming. 177 pp.