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Nutritional Systems For Swine To Increase Reproductive Efficiency
M.D. Lindemann, D.K. Aaron
Department of Animal and Food Sciences
A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers. A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers.
2008 Project Description
1. Carnitine is a body compound that assists fatty acid movement into the mitochondria where the fatty acids can be burned for energy. Data were collected and submitted for sows allocated to the carnitine objective (wherein the question is asked - does carnitine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation improve reproductive performance); all sows have completed the project. Data are being pooled from 3 stations and analyzed as a set. Data from our location show an increase in litter size of 0.5-1.0 pig/litter in either gestation or lactation and the results are additive.
2. Studies evaluating amino acid ratios for growing pigs were continued. The results further defined the required amount of tryptophan needed per unit of lysine in the diet. These results will limit the amount of unnecessary supplementation of tryptophan to swine diets which will reduce total dietary cost and will reduce nitrogen excretion by pigs. New studies evaluating the required amount of isoleucine needed per unit of lysine in the diet were initiated.
3. Evaluation of several flavoring agents and nutrient levels to nursery diets as they may affect diet preference and, therefore, feed intake in weaned pigs were conducted. Results are currently inconclusive.
4. Previous studies had demonstrated that some antibiotics can improve phosphorus digestibility in the gut of pigs which reduces the need for supplemental phosphorus in the diet. This year we evaluated the antibiotic tylosin and found that it does not have this beneficial improvement in digestibility associated with its inclusion in the diet. This is now the second antibiotic that does not have the effect and demonstrates that the initial observations with the antibiotic virginiamycin are antibiotic-specific rather than a generalized antibiotic effect.
1. If the UK carnitine response is confirmed at the other locations, the impact will be astounding. If this technology were universally adopted, it could result in about 12 million pigs would be born yearly in the US from the same size national sow herd. At a value of $20 per newborn pig, this is equivalent to $240 million. The benefit/cost ratio of this technology would exceed 100:1
2. The understanding of appropriate amino acid ratios has potential impact on diet cost and nitrogen excretion from pigs eating those diets. Dietary cost savings are dependent on the market prices of dietary ingredients and the choices that swine producers have for ingredients. Based on current economics, there is not a dietary cost savings from this information.
3. If continuing studies reveal responsive situations in which the flavors or nutrient levels can improve feed intake, then management recommendations of when to include a dietary flavor will be developed. Feed intake drives almost all biological responses (especially growth rate) and increased feed intake will produce significant economic returns.
4. The demonstration that the antibiotic tylosin does not improve phosphorus digestibility in a manner similar to those that do improve phosphorus digestibility means that swine producers will not reduce their phosphorus supplementation with this antibiotic under the false assumption that all antibiotics will improve phosphorus digestibility. This will avoid the unplanned diet inadequacy in phosphorus which could compromise bone health and bone strength.
Ma, Y.L., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, R.B. Cox, and G. Rentfrow. 2008. Evaluation of organic and inorganic trace minerals for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl. 1): (in press).
Kim, Beob G., and Merlin D. Lindemann. 2007. An overview of mineral and vitamin requirements of swine in the National Research Council (1944 to 1998) publications. Prof. Anim. Sci. 23:584.
Lindemann, M.D., G.L. Cromwell, H.J. Monegue, and K.W. Purser. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue retention of chromium in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2971.
Quant, A.D., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, B.J. Kerr, and R.L. Payne. 2008. Determining the optimum ratio of dietary tryptophan to lysine in growing pigs fed non-U.S.-type ingredients. J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl. 2): (in press).
Wang, M., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, H.J. Monegue, and R.L. Payne. 2008. Preference of weanling pigs for dietary methionine is dependent on the source of methionine. J. Anim. Sci. 86 (Suppl. 2): (in press).
Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G. L. Cromwell. 2008. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiration rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets. FASEB J. 22:Abstr. 686.1.