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Nutritional Systems For Swine To Increase Reproductive Efficiency
M.D. Lindemann, D.K. Aaron
Department of Animal and Food Sciences
A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers. A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers.
2009 Project Description
1. Carnitine is a body compound that assists fatty acid movement into the mitochondria where the fatty acids can be burned for energy. Data were collected (a total of 73 parity observations) and submitted for sows allocated to the carnitine objective (i.e., does carnitine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation improve reproductive performance); all sows have completed the project and our data demonstrate benefits in each phase that are additive. Data are being summarized from 3 universities and an abstract being prepared.
2. A follow-up study is evaluating the long term reproductive effects of crowding young females in their nursery pens immediately after they are weaned. Previous results demonstrated that the increased social/environmental stress of the crowding reduces subsequent litter size when these females enter the breeding herd. The present study is evaluating why this occurs and how it may be mitigated. The current group of females has completed the growing phase and is now at breeding age for their first parity; breeding is anticipated to begin in about 6 weeks.
3. Two studies were done that evaluated various levels of addition of salt to the diet of nursery pigs. The first study demonstrated benefit of adding more salt to the diet than is routinely added. The second study was more equivocal. A third study will begin in 8 weeks.
4. The addition of an animal protein source to lactating sow diets was evaluated. This practice may increase sow feed intake and, as a consequence, reduce body weight loss in lactation and thereby improve rebreeding efficiency. Our data showed minor improvements but they were not statistically significant. The data are being pooled with data from other universities to give greater statistical power to the data set.
5. Previous studies had demonstrated that some antibiotics can improve phosphorus digestibility in the gut of pigs which reduces the need for supplemental phosphorus in the diet. This year we evaluated the antibiotic tylosin and found that it does not have this beneficial improvement in digestibility associated with its inclusion in the diet. The results from the evaluation of two antibiotics (BMD and tylosin) were included in a manuscript submitted for publication.
6. A study was conducted that evaluated the addition of an enzymatically digested yeast product that contained mannan oligosaccarides to sow diets for two weeks prefarrowing. Results showed an increase in birth weight of pigs of 180 grams which increased at weaning to 780 grams which further increased at the end of the nursery period to 1,860 grams. Follow-up studies are being planned. The current data have been presented in China and will be presented at meetings in the US for both veterinarians and animal scientists.
1. Carnitine impact awaits analysis of the data.
2. It is important to realize that simple management decisions early in the life of young females (i.e., how many pigs/pen or how crowded they can be) will impact future reproductive performance. Because of the very important societal interest in animal well-being, this information, which has not been generated before because it is such a long-term study, will have positive impact in many ways. The female pig will be better understood and cared for. The swine production industry will be able to demonstrate their concern about the welfare of pigs, and the consumer can be assured that their food is produced in a manner that is acceptable. However, the monetary quantification of benefit:cost ratio awaits the additional data that are currently being generated.
3. Salt is an extremely inexpensive ingredient and because it is routinely added to all animal diets, it has not been the subject of much research. If our initial observations of benefit in growth and feed efficiency in certain situations are confirmed with our follow-up studies, the adoption of this change will be relatively rapid because of the very low cost of the ingredient. If our initial observations are sustained, the benefit:cost ratio of this dietary addition will exceed 50:1.
4. The value of the addition of the particular animal protein to sow diets awaits confirmation of a response and then computation of relative cost benefits.
5. The demonstration that two antibiotics do not improve phosphorus digestibility in a manner similar to those that do improve phosphorus digestibility means that the response is antibiotic-dependent. All antibiotics need to be evaluated for the response before a "phosphorus value" can be given to the antibiotic. This will avoid the unplanned diet inadequacy in phosphorus which could compromise bone health and bone strength when an unevaluated antibiotic is used with the assumption that it responds as did the initial antibiotic evaluated for phosphorus digestibility.
6. Any technology that improves birth weight of pigs will have benefit all the way to the marketing of those pigs. Preliminary benefit:cost comparisons suggest a ratio of 20:1 when the benefits are accounted through the end of the nursery phase; benefits should properly be accounted through marketing of the pigs and that may increase the benefit:cost ratio beyond 30:1. Follow-up studies will modify the preliminary comparisons.
Lindemann, M.D., J.H. Brendemuhl, L.I. Chiba, C.S. Darroch, C.R. Dove, M.J. Estienne, and A.F. Harper. 2008. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows. J. Anim. Sci. 86:333-338.
Lindemann, M.D., G.L. Cromwell, H.J. Monegue, and K.W. Purser. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue retention of chromium in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2971-2978.
Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2009. The effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, blood measurements, and respiratory rate in pigs kept in high and low ambient temperature. J. Anim Sci. 87:1695-1704. First published on January 16, 2009 as doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1218.
Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2009. The effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, vital signs, and blood measurements of pigs during immune stress. Biol. Trace Elements Research (Published online ahead on 08/28/2009; DOI 10.1007/s12011-009-8503-x).
Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2009. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiratory rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets. Biol. Trace Element Research (Published online ahead on 06/04/2009; DOI 10.1007/s12011-009-8417-7)
Crenshaw, T.D., M.D. Lindemann, H.H. Stein, and North Central Regional Committee on Swine Nutrition (NCCC-42). 2009. Validation of the NCCC-42 vitamin-trace mineral premix for growing pigs -- A regional study. J. Anim Sci. (in revision prior to acceptance).
M.D. Lindemann, J.H. Cho, and M.Q. Wang. 2009. Chromium - An Essential Mineral. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 22:339-345.