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Research and Development Leading to an Integrated Mosquito Management Program for Kentucky
Department of Entomology
The appearance of West Nile Virus a few years ago demonstrated that Kentucky is poorly prepared to deal with a significant mosquito-borne disease threat. We lack understanding of the biology and distribution of mosquito species in the state, need better mosquito management techniques, and need to improve our mosquito monitoring systems. All of this must be integrated into computer models that enable us to predict mosquito populations and to prescribe management tactics that are efficacious, yet also sound economically and environmentally. Finally, a state-wide program that actually implements this approach is needed. This project attempts to fill those needs. The purpose of this project is to develop and implement an integrated mosquito management program for the commonwealth of Kentucky.
2009 Project Description
In 2009, we had our 5th annual mosquito control and ID short course. This year, there were 18 attendees and for the entire life of the project, over 100 public health workers have been trained. Most of these are from Kentucky but there have also been some from surrounding states. Over 55,000 individual mosquito specimens were identified to species for municipalities of Kentucky, mostly for Louisville. In addition, over 1,000 sand flies (a new disease vector in Kentucky) were collected and identified. Eight presentations were given at professional and development meetings/workshops in 2009. These presentations disseminated the results of the identifications as well as research results on independent testing/evaluating new mosquito control products. The development meetings were all targeted at public health workers.
The principal impacts occurred in two areas: Sand fly phenology/biology and mosquito larvicide testing.
With respect to sand fly phenology, a degree day model was developed and validated to enable the prediction of first flight for this new vector. Anticipating first flight is very important because it enables us to detect the earliest time to begin sampling and to expect disease transmission. In addition to this, by taking transects across forested areas, we were able to determine the best trap location for sampling the dominant species in Kentucky. These two advances will greatly facilitate our ability to control and contain any future human or animal pathogen transmitted by these flies.
With respect to mosquito larvicide testing: A new larvicide was tested in abandoned pool in Lexington, Kentucky. This was the second year of testing for this spinosad-based product. The results indicated that the product, which has a novel mode of action, performed well enough that it can be used in municipal settings. The principal contribution of this product is (1) it is very benign environmentally and (2) when used in rotation with traditional larvicides, it will help prevent the development of resistance to all larvicides. As a result of our work, this product will be adopted in major metropolitan areas throughout the US. We will collaborate with some of these areas (Chicago, Louisville, St. Louis, Minneapolis) in their evaluations during 2010.
Trout, R. T.; Brown, G. C.; Potter, M. F.; Hubbard, J. L. 2007. Efficacy of Two Pyrethroid Insecticides Applied as Barrier Treatments for Managing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Suburban Residential Properties. J. Med. Entomol. 44: 470-477.
Minter, L., B. Kovacic, D. M. Claborn, P. Lawyer, D. Florin, and G. C. Brown. 2009. New State Records for Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar) and Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett). J. Med. Entomol. 46: 965-968.
Trout, R. T. and G. C. Brown. 2009. Impact of residual insecticide applied to upper story vegetation on resting adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Florida Entomol. 92(1):91-98