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Improving the Sustainability of Livestock and Poultry Production in the United States
G.L. Cromwell, J. Grove
Department of Animal and Food Sciences
Certain diets contribute to the excretion of excessive phosphorus, nitrogen, and other nutrient into the environment This project will determine the effectiveness of diet alterations on reducing nutrient excretion into the environment.
2010 Project Description
Manure excreted by nonruminant animals (swine and poultry) is high in phosphorus due to the inability of these animals to degrade the naturally occurring organic phosphorus in grains and oilseed meals. Our studies over several years have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with the enzyme, phytase, increases the degradability and utilization of feed phosphorus, thus allowing one to reduce the inorganic phosphorus in the diet which, in turn, reduces the phosphorus in the manure. We also have found that the antibiotic, virginiamycin, improves phosphorus utilization. Swine manure is also high in nitrogen which can contribute to aerial ammonia as well as serve as a potential contaminant in ground water.
Our studies have shown that reducing dietary protein and supplementing with certain amino acids, or by using superior dietary ingredients that improve dietary protein utilization will improve body retention of nitrogen (i.e., body protein) and reduce nitrogen excretion in pig manure. Organic forms of trace minerals are claimed to be more bioavailable than inorganic forms, but there are limited data to support this claim.
Our studies have shown that the substitution of certain forms of organic minerals may or may not have the potential of reducing trace mineral excretion into the environment. This past year, we concentrated on studies to evaluate the effects of feeding a high fiber, high fat diet consisting of corn and soybean meal with up to 45% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for growing-finishing pigs.
Performance was not greatly impacted with the feeding of the high DDGS diet; however, belly firmness was decreased due to a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the fat that resulted from the unsaturated fat in the DDGS. Nevertheless, slicing efficiency of the bellies, processing the bellies into bacon, and eating quality of bacon, Bratwurst sausage, and loin chops were not negatively affected by the feeding of large amounts of DDGS. Removal of DDGS from the finishing diet partially restored carcass firmness.
Manipulating the diet in order to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure will improve the environment when swine manure is applied to crop land. The ability to include large amounts of DDGS in swine feed will reduce feed costs to pork producers without negatively impact the pig's carcass or eating quality of pork. Our studies should help the swine industry to produce and feed high quality diets that are economical and that can potentially contribute to an improvement in the environment.
Lindemann, M.D., A.D. Quant, J.S. Monegue, M.Wang, G.L. Cromwell, and M.C. Newman. 2010. Evaluation of antibiotic effects on phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1752-1758.
Ma, Y.L., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, and G. Rentfrow. 2010. Effect of organic and inorganic mineral source and preslaughter deletion on tissue mineral content of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:(E-Suppl. 2):499.
McClelland, K.M., G.K. Rentfrow, G.L. Cromwell, M.D. Lindemann, and M.J. Azain. 2010. Effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on quality traits of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 88:(E-Suppl. 3):90.
McClelland, K.M., G. Rentfrow, G.L. Cromwell, and M.D. Lindemann. 2010. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on pork longissimus and sausage quality. Abstr. 49P, Proc. 63rd Reciprocal Meat Conference.
Ulery, M.C., G.L. Cromwell, G.K. Rentfrow, M.D. Lindemann, and M.J. Azain. 2010. Attempts to improve belly firmness in finishing pigs fed a high level of DDGS. J. Anim. Sci. 88:(E-Suppl. 3):91.
Ulery, M.C., G.L. Cromwell, G.K. Rentfrow, M.D. Lindemann, and M.J. Azain. 2010. Belly firmness and bacon quality from finishing pigs fed DDGS with various withdrawal times and with added tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 88:(E-Suppl. 2):553.