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Research and Development Leading to an Integrated Mosquito Management Program for Kentucky
Department of Entomology
The appearance of West Nile Virus a few years ago demonstrated that Kentucky is poorly prepared to deal with a significant mosquito-borne disease threat. We lack understanding of the biology and distribution of mosquito species in the state, need better mosquito management techniques, and need to improve our mosquito monitoring systems. All of this must be integrated into computer models that enable us to predict mosquito populations and to prescribe management tactics that are efficacious, yet also sound economically and environmentally. Finally, a state-wide program that actually implements this approach is needed. This project attempts to fill those needs. The purpose of this project is to develop and implement an integrated mosquito management program for the commonwealth of Kentucky.
2010 Project Description
In 2010, we had our 6th annual mosquito control and ID short course. This year, there were 13 attendees and for the entire life of the project, over 100 public health workers have been trained. Most of these have been from Kentucky but there have also been some from surrounding states. About 36,000 individual mosquito specimens were identified to species for municipalities of Kentucky, mostly for Louisville.
In addition, over 700 sand flies (a new disease vector in Kentucky) were collected. Both of these numbers were down from the previous year. Six presentations were given at professional and development meetings/workshops in 2010. These presentations disseminated the results of the identifications as well as research results on independent testing/evaluating new mosquito control products. The development meetings were all targeted at public health workers, both civilian and military.
The principal impacts occurred in two areas: Sand fly phenology/biology and mosquito larvicide testing. With respect to sand fly phenology, a degree day model was developed and validated to enable the prediction of first flight for this new vector. Anticipating first flight is very important because it enables us to detect the earliest time to begin sampling and to expect disease transmission.
In addition to this, by taking transects across forested areas, we were able to determine the best trap location for sampling the dominant species in Kentucky. These two advances will greatly facilitate our ability to control and contain any future human or animal pathogen transmitted by these flies.
Minter, L. M., G. C. Brown, and D. W. Johnson. Submitted, Nov. 2010. Investigation of habitat effects on the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia shannoni across heterogeneous environments, with note of respective mosquito species compositions. J. Med. Entomol.
Schwartzberg, E. G., Johnson, D.W., and Brown, G.C. 2010. The influence of the ant Lasius neoniger Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on population growth and biomass of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybeans. Accepted, Environmental Entomology.
Minter, L. M. and G. C. Brown. 2010. Circadian activity of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) during late season population peaks. J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc. 26(4). (December, 2010 issue).
Schwartzberg, E. G., Haynes, K.F., Johnson, D.W., and Brown, G.C. (2010) Wax structures of Scymnus louisianae attenuate aggression from aphid-tending ants. Environmental Entomology. 39(4) 1309-1314.