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IPM An Integrated Pest Management Program for Kentucky
D. Johnson, P. Lucas
Department of Entomology
There is currently significant pressure on producers (through early decision programs that provide economic incentives for purchase of pesticides or technologies in advance of the growing season), to implement new pesticide-based technologies, such as pesticide seed treatments, "Plant Health" calendar sprays,and genetically modified crops, beyond their apparent need based on documented pest levels. This is not a question of pesticide efficacy but rather a true IPM question as to whether or not these treatments are needed. The same can be said for the use of fertilizers.
We know from very recent data that our program can have an impact on these decisions. For example in our recent Corn/Soybean "Early Bird" meetings producers indicated on both corn and soybean, that they intended to decrease calendar fungicide application and increase scouting for fungicide applications, next season compared to this past season (Lee, unpublished data Nov. 2008). This type of change based primarily on increasing profitability is very important to all of Kentucky. We provide a single simple example as follows. Kentucky tourism generates about $10B/year. Much of this is based on/around our abundant lakes, rivers and streams. Kentucky has over 89,431 miles of rivers and streams and over 637,000 acres of wetlands; and anecdotally, Kentucky has more miles of free flowing stream bank than any other state in the US excepting Alaska. These tourism assets occupy the same rural/natural areas as our production agriculture. Contrastingly, ca. 76 % or our cropland is characterized by erosion concerns. As a single example, in 2005 Kentucky corn producers applied 210 M lbs of nitrogen, 75 M lbs. phosphate, 88 M lbs. potash, 3,187 K lbs. herbicides, and 26 K lbs. of insecticides on a 1,250,000 acre field corn crop. While these numbers alone do not prove a problem they certainly illustrate the potential for conflict to exist.
UK-IPM strives to provide decision-making tools to help producers to determine IF inputs are needed and if so, WHAT, WHEN, and HOW to apply and retain them on the crop, and avoid their movement to untended areas. Additionally, we focus on avoidance (e.g. planting dates) and other cultural practices to reduce the need for pesticides.
2011 Project Description
Because of time of the grant and date of the Progress report most information has already been reported.
Coordination: Apple Producer IPM Meeting -Mayfield, KY, May20, 2010, Provided support to Office of State Entomologist, November 2009 - follow up visits to view area treated for Fire Ants.
Nursery Crop WG: The Nursery Winter Workshop, Nursery Crops IPM Diagnostics Workshop, Nursery Crops Pest Management Strategic Plan Preparation meeting - concomitant documents, Japanese maple scale biology was recorded during scouting visits and control measures were assessed, Calico scale biology was recorded and control measures were assessed, Oystershell scale biology was recorded and control measured assessed, Four nurseries were scouted throughout the growing season.
Wheat Science WG: Small Grain Variety Performance Testing for wheat and barley. Nine tests are conducted at seven locations throughout Ky to determine varietal differences in yield potential, grain quality, disease resistance, and physiological characteristics. Nitrogen fertility research conducted on traditional and hulless barley. The test evaluated nitrogen requirements among barely varieties/lines and results may indicate that maximum yields may be achieved at lower than recommended N rates, which will reduce production costs and benefit the environment. Disease ratings are published in the annual bulletin which is available on the internet and distributed to at least 4000 farmers, extension agents and agricultural workers.
Because of time of the grant and date of the Progress report most information has already been reported. Two "Success Stories forward directly to National Program Leader.
Nursery Crop WG: Program attendance was 75+ and spanned five states. Attendees state they are using spray hoods, are aware of glyphosate resistant marestail, and are scouting more frequently. Growers estimated the program value at $5000 in saved labor, refined pesticide use, and increased plant value. Twelve issues of the Kentucky Nursery Update (300 subscribers) were published. Growers estimated that they save an average of $4,700 per nursery per year due to newsletter information.
The scale pest assessment was shared with other growers via the Kentucky Nursery Update. One cooperating grower estimated the potential long-term savings due to access to this state-specific information at $100,000.
Vegetable WG: Leveraged funding from multiple grants from SARE, NCRS, USDA-Organic, and KY Dept Ag in the amount of $450,143 in part from data generated by UK-IPM program. Approximately 85 consultations and scouting visits were conducted in 2010. Growers estimated saving a total of $20,000 in pesticides and labor due to the scouting program.(Changed since previous report.)
Adkins, C., G. Armel, M. Chappell, J.C. Chong, S. Frank, A. Fulcher, F. Hale, K. Ivors, W. Klingeman III, A. LeBude, J. Neal, A. Senesac, S. White, A. Windham. 2010. Pest Management Strategic Plan for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in GA, KY, NC, SC, TN. A. Fulcher, ed. Southern Region IPM Center.
Adkins, C., G. Armel, M. Chappell, J.C. Chong, S. Frank, A. Fulcher, F. Hale, K. Ivors, W. Klingeman, A. LeBude, J. Neal, A. Senesac, S. White, J. Williams-Woodward, and A. Windham. 2010. Crop Profile for Container and Field-Produced Nursery Crops in Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. A. Fulcher (ed.). Southern Region IPM Center.
Call, D (Ed.) 2010. 2009 -2010 Annual University of Kentucky Wheat Science Research Report Book http://www2.ca.uky.edu/wheatscience/rrcontentpage. Coolong, T. (ed.), R. Bessin, K. Seebold, T. Jones, and J. Strang 2009. 2010-2011 Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers. ID-36. 132 pp.http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id36/id36.htm
Coolong, T. and S. Surendran. 2011. Tensiometer Installation. HortFact-7003. 3 pp. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horticulture/HortFact7003.pdf.
Coolong, T. (ed.), J. Snyder, and C. Smigell. 2009. 2009 Fruit and Vegetable Research Report. PR-603. 58 pp. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/pr/pr603/pr603.pdf.
Egli, D.B. 2010. SOYPOD: A model of fruit set in soybean. Agron. J. 102: 39-47.
Egli, D.B. and P.L. Cornelius. 2009. A regional analysis of the response of soybean yield to planting dates. Agron. J. 101: 330-335.
8. Fulcher, A. 2010. Integrated Pest Management-Based Nursery Crop Production Extension Programming. Acta Horticulturae. In press.
Hershman D. 2010. Wheat Rusts are a No Show So Far. Kentucky Pest News 1225:3-5.
Hershman D. 2010. New Tool for Assessing Fusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) Risk in Wheat Kentucky Pest News 1227:4.
Hershman, D. and Bachi, P. 2010. Take-All of Wheat. PPFS-AG-SG-1.
Hershman, D. and Bachi, P. 2010. Wheat Bacterial Streak/Black Chaff. PPFS-AG-SG-02.
Hershman, D. and Kennedy, B. 2010. Effect of Fungicide and Host Resistance on Foliar and Head Diseases of Three Winter Wheat Cultivars in Kentucky, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports, Vol 4: CF033.
Hershman, D., Kennedy, B. and Yielding, T. 2010. Fungicidal Control of Foliar and Head Diseases of Winter Wheat in Kentucky, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports, Vol 4: CF036.
Hershman, D., Kennedy, B. and Yielding, T. 2010. Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Foliar and Head Diseases of Winter Wheat in Kentucky, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports, Vol 4: CF035.
Hershman, D., Kennedy B., Yielding, T. and Mundell, N. 2010. Effect of Fungicide and Times of Application on Foliar and Head Diseases of Winter Wheat in Kentucky, 2009. Plant Disease Management Reports, Vol 4: CF 034.
Kentucky Pest News. 2009. Multiple Articles by Vegetable, Corn/Soy & Wheat Sci. WG. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Site%2 0Files/kpn 09/kpndx 09.htm.
Kentucky Pest News. 2010. Multiple Articles by Vegetable, Corn/Soy & Wheat Sci. WG.http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/extension/KPN%20Sit e%20Files/kpn 10/kpndx 10.htm#pdf.
Lucas, P. 2010. Crop Profile for Winter Wheat in Kentucky. (2nd Revision.) (http://www.ipmcenters.org/cropprofiles/docs/KYwheat.pdf).
Seebold, K., R. Bessin and T. Coolong. 2009. An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Problems of Cucurbit Crops In Kentucky. ID-91. 24 pp. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id91/id91.pdf.
Van Sanford D. and Bruening B. 2010. Selecting Head Scab Resistant Wheat Varieties. Kentucky Pest News 1210:4-5.