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Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Seed Quality and Performance (From W1168)
A.B. Downie, R.L. Geneve, S.E. Perry, C.C. Baskin
Department of Horticulture
Seeds are the primary entities for propagation of food, feed, fiber, bio-fuel, and ornamental plants. America produces copious quantities of seed to grow a vast array of plants whose natural and agro-ecological niches are exceptionally diverse and in environmental conditions that are not always favorable for their germination, emergence, establishment, and persistence.
The underlying principles that influence successful plant propagation are biologically based, as are the solutions to overcoming problems that limit establishment of desirable species. Whether at the level of the individual seed, variety, field, habitat, or ecosystem, the needs for seed biology research transcend individual geographic regions.
This multistate project has had, and will continue to have, an important role in capitalizing on research opportunities that will successfully address various biological processes that enhance seed performance. Many productive research collaborations have been initiated through this multistate project, and the wide array of seed biology expertise among W-1168 participants synergistically stimulates new approaches leading to relevant new biological insights. The outcomes from these collaborations foster technical innovations applicable to the wide range of crops and natural species.
2011 Project Description
Objective 1. Identify and characterize biophysical, biochemical, genetic, and environmental factors regulation or influencing seed development, germination, vigor and dormancy. 1.a) Examination of the influence of barley (Hordeum vulgar) CRYPTOCHROME1 (CRY1), CRY2, LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), and COP INTERACTING PROTEIN8 (CIP8) on seed dormancy during germination.
Objective 2. Determine and model the biotic and abiotic factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and establishment of sustainable populations in natural and agro-ecological systems. 2.a) Used phage display and biopanning to examine the Arabidopsis LEA protein, SEED MATURATION PROTEIN1 (SMP1), and the soybean homolog, GmPM28, for protein binding partners at high temperature. 2.b) Used phage display and biopanning to examine PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) interacting proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recovery of interacting bHLH transcription factors to which PIF1 is known to bind as a homo- (PIF1) and a hetero- (PIF3) dimer and some to which PIF1 was not previously known to bind. The latter interactions were retrieved when genomic DNA containing E-BOX motifs was added to the pans.
Objective 3. Develop, evaluate, and transfer technologies to assess and improve seed and seedling quality, health, performance, utilization, and preservation. No activity.
Events include conferences, demonstration sites, field days, symposia, workshops, and trainings. Lloyd, Taylor, Kumar, Santosh, Downie, Bruce. Differential expression of PIF1-targeted genes in various PIF1 and CTG10 mutants. Abstract 517, ICAR, 2011, 22nd International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, June 22-25, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Kushwaha, Rekha, Kumar, Santosh, Downie, Bruce. An approach to identify PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) interacting proteins from Arabidopsis seeds. Abstract 512, ICAR, 2011, 22nd International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, June 22-25, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Kumar, Santosh, Nayak, Nihar, Martin, Kathleen, Schafermeyer, Kim, Lloyd, Taylor D., Dinkins, Randy, Goodin, Michael, Downie, Bruce. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation studies support an in vivo interaction between the F-box protein COLD TEMPERATURE GERMINATING10 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1. Abstract 511, ICAR, 2011, 22nd International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, June 22-25, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. - Panel Member NSF-SBIR (2011: P110920. Phase I: Medical Imaging Technologies) - Associate Editor (seed biology) Botany. - Kentucky American - Mutant seed to Enamul, University of Texas, Austin, TX. - HsPIMT and PRH75 to Eckhard Jankowsky (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Late elementary school participants: Mustards: From Mutations to Mutualism: 2011 Raven Run Nature Sanctuary and College of Agriculture at the University of Kentucky collaborated on a new laboratory and field program focusing on various ways scientists study and understand the biology and ecology of certain species of plants. The program was presented for five days between March 18th through the 25th and was designed for late elementary school audiences. This program was sectioned into a laboratory component and a field component. Approximately 50 students attended each day of the program and were divided onto two groups. Each group began a different activity and switched after each hour to allow all students to complete both activities.
As a direct result of participating in research activities in my lab, Ms. Taylor Lloyd's scientific capacity increased to the point where she was capable of acquiring her own funding in the form of an American Society of Plant Biologists Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship and the Astronaut Fellowship. Former post-doc Dr. Nihar Ranjan Nayak got a job as a Ramalingaswami Fellow at the Regional Plant Resource Center, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar, Odisha,751 015, India. Former post-doc Dr. Tianyong Zhao is now Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, P.R.China.
Seeking to perform a Sabbatical in Australia starting in August of 2011, the following funds were acquired: Office of the Chief Executive Science team: Commonwealth Science and Industry Research Organization (CSIRO): Sir Frederick McMaster Fellowship. 01/08/2011-31/07/2012 ($15,300 AUD). USDA-Strengthening Grant: Sabbatical: 2011-04375. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to deconvolute cryptochromes' (HvCRYs) influences on gene expression controlling ABA titer impacting seed dormancy in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). 01.02.2012-31.01.2013. ($64,934 for one year)
From a collaboration with Arthur Hunt of Plant and Soil Science, the funds for a second year of a two year grant were provided for the continuence of a KSEF grant. Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation (KSEF through KSTC) ($100,000). PI: Arthur Hunt. Co-PI: Bruce Downie. Polyadenylation of stored mRNA during seed germination. July 01, 2010-June 30, 2012.
Mendu Venugopal, Griffiths Jonathan S., Persson Staffan, Stork Jozsef, Downie A. Bruce, Voiniciuc Cătălin, Haughn George W., DeBolt Seth. 2011. Subfunctionalization of cellulose synthases in seed coat epidermal cells mediates secondary radial wall synthesis and mucilage attachment. Plant Physiol. 157: 441-453.
Xiaohui Wu, Qingshun Li, Bruce Downie, Chun Liang, Guoli Ji, and Arthur Hunt. 2011. Genome-wide landscape of polyadenylation in Arabidopsis provides evidence for extensive alternative polyadenylation. PNAS USA. 108: 12533-12538.